Russian president demanded that exports of Russian gas to "unfriendly" countries be settled in rubles. The demand has raised concerns in Germany about possible supply disruptions and the impact on industry and households if utilities do not pay in robles. Europe gets about 40% of its gas from Russia. Last year, Europe imported about 155 billion cubic meters. Germany, Europe's largest economy, depends heavily on Russian gas.
The chief executive of Germany's E.ON said the German economy would face "significant damage, which should be avoided if possible" without Russian supplies. He also said it would take Germany three years to wean itself off Russian gas.
In the event of a supply disruption, Germany's gas network regulator would prioritize home heating over industrial use, so energy-hungry manufacturers such as steelmakers would be the first to suffer, he said.
The volatile international situations will continue to affect the markets and prices of many commodities like the early strength agent,superplasticizer for concrete.
Early strength admixture refers to the admixture that can improve the early strength of concrete and has no significant effect on the later strength.
Superplasticizer for concrete is a concrete admixture that can reduce the amount of mixing water while maintaining the slump of concrete basically unchanged.
Early-strength agents can be divided into three categories according to chemical composition: strong electrolyte inorganic salts, water-soluble organic compounds, and composite early-strength agents composed of organic and inorganic compounds.
Polycarboxylic superplasticizers are usually divided into: lignosulfonate superplasticizers, naphthalene superplasticizers, melamine superplasticizers, sulfamate superplasticizers, and fatty acid superplasticizers according to their chemical composition. Superplasticizers, polycarboxylate superplasticizers.
3 Main ingredients
In addition to chloride and sulfate, early strength agents include nitrite, chromate, etc., as well as organic substances such as triethanolamine, calcium formate, urea, etc.
Different types of superplasticizer for concrete have very different components. It is mainly a surfactant. Currently, the third-generation polycarboxylate superplasticizer is widely used.
The early strength agent does not contain chloride ions and has no rust effect on steel bars. It is suitable for all civil and industrial buildings, prestressed reinforced concrete components, mortar, etc. It is most suitable for construction under low temperature conditions in early winter and early spring. .
Water reducing agent is widely used in high-speed rail, high-speed, civil, industrial buildings and prefabricated component factories, etc. It has wide applicability and is suitable for all seasons.
The dosage of early strength agent is 3-6% of cement. In order to keep the quality of the concrete mixed with this agent uniform, the stirring time is prolonged by 1-2 minutes. Concrete mixed with early strength agent cannot use active mineral orthopedics (such as opal). If this agent is damp and agglomerated, it must be crushed or weathered before use, and its performance remains unchanged.
Because there are many types of superplasticizers, the appropriate type of superplasticizer should be selected according to the needs of the project. For winter construction, it is recommended to use the third-generation polycarboxylate superplasticizer.
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The United States urges the U.N. Security Council to impose additional sanctions on North Korea in response to its latest ballistic missile launch, including a ban on tobacco and oil exports to North Korea and a blacklist of the Lazarus hacking group.
The United States circulated the draft to the 15 members of the Security Council this week. It was not immediately clear if or when a vote would take place. A resolution requires nine "yes" votes and no vetoes from Russia, China, France, Britain, or the United States.
Russia and China have already voiced opposition to tightening sanctions in response to Pyongyang's launch of an intercontinental ballistic missile last month -- the first since 2017.
U.S. and South Korean officials and analysts also say there are growing indications that North Korea may soon conduct its first nuclear weapons test since 2017, too.
The U.S. -drafted U.N. resolution would expand the ban on ballistic missile launches to include cruise missiles or "any other delivery system capable of delivering a nuclear weapon."
The deal would halve crude oil exports to North Korea to 2 million barrels a year and refined oil exports to 250,000 barrels a year. The resolution also seeks to ban North Korea's export of "fossil fuels, mineral oils, and their distilled early strength agent,superplasticizer for concrete are estimated to be influenced by international political situation changes.
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